Reconstructed map of the 1945 Clapp Report proposals for standardisation of Australia's railways

Reconstructed map of the 1945 Clapp Report proposals for standardisation of Australia’s railways

5400 × 4960

“I done some digging and found that South Australia uses standard gauge for the most part. 2500ish km standard vs 250isk broad. Victoria is about 60/40 broad 2350, standard 1950 … Huh interesting. I’d imagine the huge chunk of that would be the trans-australian and darwin lines. A lot of SA’s early lines were built broad (like the line to Melbourne). Then for some random reason SAR decided to build a lot of lines in the north of the state as narrow. All the early standard gauge lines in SA were built by Commonwealth Railways (like the trans-australian). The Melbourne line and a few branching off of it were later converted to standard in the early 90s”

The history of the world as a series of rivers, starting in 3984 BC and ending c.1830

The history of the world as a series of rivers, starting in 3984 BC and ending c.1830 (in French - produced in 1830)

6319 × 9309

‘I wanted to find fault with this but so far I can’t, extremely well done. I’d have perhaps given the Mongols more push over Europe and included India, but I suppose he had to work with the tools of the time … ou can kinda see India if you follow from the Mongols through Chagatai then Temur and his descendents (Mughal dynasty), ending with it saying this area became part of the British empire’

Potential frost days annually in Australia

Potential frost days annually in Australia (where the minimum temperature is less than 2°C)

750 × 517

‘Is the high number of frost days in the Alice an artificial consequence of the « high » human presence here (and thus more meteorological data), or is there a specific local reason to the number of frost days in central AU ? I spent some time over there, it was pretty cold at night but not 0°C I mean … It defs gets below 0C. You might not know but Alice Springs is 550m above sea level. That altitude, that far away from the ocean and outside the tropics, you’re bound to get frost’

Largest Ethnicities in regions of Saskatchewan and Manitoba, 1911

Largest Ethnicities in regions of Saskatchewan and Manitoba, 1911

6826 × 4801

‘British Isle origins (Scottish, English, Irish): Mostly came from Ontario, who previously settled in large numbers in Ontario as Loyalists (originally from the 13 colonies who left for Ontario around 1793), or Quakers (who left for Ontario in the early 1800s, or other immigrants to Ontario up until the late 1800s. Their descendants then headed out west in the late/later 1800s and very early 1900s.

French: 3-way combination, not all from the same place. Many came from the US as descendants of the original New France French (from Michigan, Illinois, etc, whose descendants still spoke French). Many came from Quebec and Ontario. And there were those who came from Belgium. Small French towns (which remain today) have families from one of these three main places.

German: Two different origins: (1) Russian Volga Germans (Catherine the Great’s Germans) who either came from Nebraska (think of Lawrence Welk’s folks), or directly from Russia. Both groups spoke German upon their arrival to Sask / Manitoba. OR Pennsylvania Dutch who settled in Ontario in the late 1700s/early 1800s (almost completely separate from Loyalists, whose motives were land), who became assimilated into mainstream culture (and lost their German language), and then went out West to Saskatchewan and Manitoba.

Austrian: My hunch is this is the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and should actually be classified as “Ukrainian”. Why you ask? Because by 1911 there a ton of “Ukrainians” heavily settling and founding many towns in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. But, they were NOT from Ukraine. Rather, they were from the Austro-Hungarian Empire massive northeastern province of Galacia. These people spoke a variety of Ukrainian. They had a similar but yet different culture compared to Ukraine proper (even the food was different, which means that Canadian perogies in Alberta, Sasktachewan and Manitoba are different than what you’ll find in Ukraine today, and now extinct in Galacia after World War ethnic cleansing and movement of people’